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Animal Structure and Function Unit Test Study Guide

Living Things Animals Study Guide


Directions:  Fill in the blank for each topic on the study guide.  You may use your textbook, science binder with hand outs, previous quizzes, class notes, and class experiment data sheets- anything we have done in class that you have kept- to help you on the study guide.


  1. Make sure you know the definitions for the following words:
  • Cell-  the smallest unit of all living matter.
  • Organism-a living thing that carries out 5 basic life functions.
  • Vertebrate- an animal with a backbone. Ex.  human, bird, fish.
  • Invertebrate- an animal without a backbone. Ex. sponge, mollusk(snail), jellyfish, worm.
  • Exoskeleton- hard covering that protects the body of some invertebrates. Ex. crab, spider, shrimp.
  • Life cycle- stages an organism goes through beginning with egg and ending in death.
  • Offspring- children of living organisms.  Ex. You are the offspring of your parents.
  • Molt- when an organism sheds it’s outer covering. Ex. crab, snake, etc…
  • Metamorphosis-  a series of changing body forms during an animal’s development. Ex. the stages a butterfly goes through.
  • Heredity- traits are passed down from a parent to a child. Ex. passing down the same color eyes or hair.
  • Mimicry- an adaptation in which one animal looks like another animal in order to protect itself from predators. Ex.  honeybee and hover fly.
  • Camouflage- an adaptation in which an animal can hide by blending in with its environment. Ex. spotted leopard sitting on brown rock.
  • Hibernate- to rest or sleep through the cold winter. Ex. bear, door mouse.
  • Migrate- to move from one place to another. Ex. birds flying south for the winter.
  • Habitat- the home of any organism. Ex. a pond is a habitat for fish, frogs, plants, etc…
  • Predator- carnivore that hunts for food. Ex.  Eagle
  • Prey- the organism that is being hunted and eaten. Ex. mouse


  1. Name four characteristics for each of the following 5 Groups of Vertebrates:


Mammal- warm blooded, hair/fur, gives live birth, feeds milk to young.

Reptile- cold blooded, dry, rough, scaly skin, lay tough, leathery eggs, lungs for breathing.

Bird- warm blooded, feathers and beaks, hollow bones, lay hard shelled eggs.

Amphibian- cold blooded, spend part of life in water part on land, soft, moist skin, lay eggs in or near water.

Fish- cold blooded, covered in scales, breathe using gills, lay a group of slimy eggs in water.


3.  Describe the term instinctive (inherited) behavior:  the organism was born knowing how to do this behavior.


  1. Give three examples of instinctive behaviors:  blinking, crying, and breathing.




5.  Describe the term learned behavior:  a behavior that the organism learns how to do, they were not born with it.



6. Give three examples of learned behaviors:  walking, talking,  crawling, and reading.


  1. What are the six biomes of the world?  Give two characteristics of each biome:
    • Desert- sandy, very hot days, cool nights
    • Grassland- tall grasses, very few trees
    • Tundra- very cold most all of the time, ice and snow
    • Deciduous Forest- warm summer and cold winter, leaves change colors and fall off the trees in autumn
    • Taiga- mostly evergreen trees (bear cones and have needles), cold, long winters, short, cool summers
    • Tropical Rainforest- wet year around, warm year around


  1. What are the names of the six kingdoms of living organisms (use your flip chart that we made in class to help you):  Smallest and least complicated, fewest cells- Ancient bacteria, bacteria, protist, fungi, plants, and animals- largest, and most complicated, most cells.


  1. What are the four basic needs of all animals?  Food, water, shelter, and oxygen.



10.  Carnivores are meat eaters.  The following are examples of animals that are carnivores:  lion (any cat), birds of prey (eagle, falcon, hawk, and owl), snake.


11.  Herbivores are plant eaters. The following are examples of animals that are herbivores: porcupine, deer, and rabbit


12.  Omnivores are meat and plant eaters.  The following are examples of animals that are omnivores:  human, bear, raccoon, skunk


13.  Adaptations are:  behaviors or body parts that help an organism survive in its environment.


14.  The following are adaptations for an Owl:

  • Flying helps them swoop down and catch prey.
  • Sharp claws to snatch up prey; even in tall grass.
  • Curved, sharp beak to ripping and tearing food.
  • Keen eyesight because owls are nocturnal and must be able to see their prey at night in the dark.


  1. Draw an example of a food chain that we discussed in class.  Make sure it begins with a producer at the bottom and the arrows point up.




Carnivore- Blue Heron, Human

Carnivore- Sunfish, Bass, Catfish

Herbivore- Small fish or mollusk (snail) or mayfly

Producer (plant) – Algae


16.  Five Basic Life Functions are


If something is a living organism, it must do ALL of the following-

          1. Eat food to get energy

          2. Grow

          3. Get rid of waste

          4. Reproduce

          5. React to changes in its environment




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